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Mustard
Mustard has been an important crop to India for a long period of time. At an average India produces around 5 million tones of mustard annually. It stands at the 3rd position in the list of mustard producing countries contributing around 11% of the world’s total production. Also it is the third largest producer of mustard oil in the world. Rajasthan is the leading mustard/rape producing state in India.
Rapeseed/ mustard are crops of tropical as well as temperate zones and require somewhat cool and dry weather for satisfactory growth. They require a fair supply of soil moisture during the growing period and a dry clear weather at the time of maturity. Cool temperature, clear dry weather with plentiful of bright sun shine accompanied with adequate soil moisture increases the oil yield. In India they are grown in Rabi season from September-October to February-March. Rape seed and mustard are long day in periodic response. These crops are not drought tolerant. They require an annual precipitation of 35-45 centimeters. The crop also does not tolerate water logging.
Mustard is the crop of tropical as well as temperate zones and require somewhat cool and dry weather for satisfactory growth. They require a fair supply of moisture during the growing period and a dry clear weather at the time of maturity. These crops are not drought tolerant. They require an annual precipitation of 35-45 centimeter.
In India they are grown in Rabi season from September-October to February-March. Mustard is capable of growing under a wide range of soil conditions varying from sandy loam to clay loam soils but they thrive best on light loam soils. They neither tolerate waterlogging conditions nor do well on heavy soils. he average production in the country in the last decade has been around 5.3 - 5.4 million tons. About 1.5 lakh tons is retained for sowing and direct consumption as 'seed', leaving about 4.8-5.1 million tons for crushing and extracting oil. It is a major Rabi crop. Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh are the major rapeseed producing States in the country. Together, they produce about 50% of the crop.
Mustard oil is consumed wholly in the domestic market. The demand for the consumption of mustard/rape seed comes mainly from eastern and northern areas of the country. The arrival of this crop in the markets is in its peak period during March to May. The major centers of consumption of its oil are Kolkata, Bihar, Jharkhand and the northeastern areas like Assam, Tripura, Sikkim etc. Two forms of mustard oil are traded in the Indian market namely Kacchi Ghani and Pakki Ghani (expeller oil). This industry constitutes the small-scale sector that markets the oil in loose form to about 80% and the rest contribution is made by the organized sector.
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